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Africa 2006,

Today Egypt maintains virtually the same borders as those during the time of the pharaohs. First conquered in 332 BC by Alexander the Great it passed on to Roman control in 31 BC. In 639 Muslims from Arabia conquered Egypt and transformed it into an Arabic-speaking Muslim country. Extended Turkish rule, a brief French presence under Napoleon and British caretaker rule led to the recognition of a sovereign, independent state under King Fuad on 28 February 1922. Violent protests against continued British military presence at the Suez Canal in the 1950s led to a bloodless coup. King Farouk was replaced by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser who ruled until his death in 1970. He was succeeded in 1970 by his deputy, Anwar Sadat, who signed the Camp David Peace Accords in 1979 and was assassinated two years later by members of the Islamic Jihad organization. Sadat was succeeded by his deputy, General Hosni Mubarak.