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CIA World Fact Book,

  • Official Name: Somalia
  • Government Type: no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary federal government
  • Capital: Mogadishu
  • Other Major Cities/Regions: Baidoa, Kismayo, Beledweyne, Somali Land, Punt Land
  • Size: 637,657 sq km
  • Climate: principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
  • Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
  • Population: 9,118,000
  • Ethnic Groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)
  • Religion: Sunni Muslim
  • Language: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English