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Introduction
Sources:
Africa 2006,

In the 1470s the Portuguese reached Fernando Po (later renamed Bioko) and three other tropical islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Bubi hostility and Bioko's hot, humid climate prompted the Portuguese to concentrate on the deserted islands of Sao Tome, Principe and tiny Annobon further south. In 1778 Portugal bartered Bioko and Annobon to Spain for territory in South America. Until 1858, when the Spanish finally took possession, the British leased Bioko as a naval base for anti-slavery operations. The British developed the port of Clarence, renamed Santa Isabel by the Spanish-today's Malabo, the capital of Equatorial Guinea. Rescued slaves who chose to remain are today known as the Fernandinos. They spoke pidgin English which evolved into Krio. In the 1880s, Spain added a slither of territory on the ainland to its island possessions, named it Rio Muni (today's Mbini) and formed Spanish Guinea. In response to pressures from so-called emancipados, the colony was granted independence on 12 October 1968 under Pres. Macias Nguema who led a decade-long campaign of terror resulting in the death of 20,000 people. One third of the total population of 300,000 sought asylum in neighboring countries. Cubans and North Koreans helped to keep Macias in power and the Soviet Union was allowed to exploit fish resources from a fishing- cum-military base on Bioko Island. In the process Macias drove one of Africa's most prosperous colonies into bankruptcy. On 3 August 1979, the chief of the army, Lt.-Col. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, replaced his uncle by force, took immediate steps to stabilize the country and cultivated relations with Western donor countries and organizations. He was elected president for a 7-year term in June 1989 and reelected in 1996 and December 2002.  


Introduction
Sources:
Africa 2006,

In the 1470s the Portuguese reached Fernando Po (later renamed Bioko) and three other tropical islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Bubi hostility and Bioko's hot, humid climate prompted the Portuguese to concentrate on the deserted islands of Sao Tome, Principe and tiny Annobon further south. In 1778 Portugal bartered Bioko and Annobon to Spain for territory in South America. Until 1858, when the Spanish finally took possession, the British leased Bioko as a naval base for anti-slavery operations. The British developed the port of Clarence, renamed Santa Isabel by the Spanish-today's Malabo, the capital of Equatorial Guinea. Rescued slaves who chose to remain are today known as the Fernandinos. They spoke pidgin English which evolved into Krio. In the 1880s, Spain added a slither of territory on the ainland to its island possessions, named it Rio Muni (today's Mbini) and formed Spanish Guinea. In response to pressures from so-called emancipados, the colony was granted independence on 12 October 1968 under Pres. Macias Nguema who led a decade-long campaign of terror resulting in the death of 20,000 people. One third of the total population of 300,000 sought asylum in neighboring countries. Cubans and North Koreans helped to keep Macias in power and the Soviet Union was allowed to exploit fish resources from a fishing- cum-military base on Bioko Island. In the process Macias drove one of Africa's most prosperous colonies into bankruptcy. On 3 August 1979, the chief of the army, Lt.-Col. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, replaced his uncle by force, took immediate steps to stabilize the country and cultivated relations with Western donor countries and organizations. He was elected president for a 7-year term in June 1989 and reelected in 1996 and December 2002.


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